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The study is based on intensive survey of relevant literature which reviews the present status, threats, conservation initiatives and major legislation related to conservation of forest ecosystems and plant diversity. The three natural forests (Hill, Sal and mangrove forest) are the key habitats of plant diversity and cover about 2 million hectares of land. Despite a flora diversity rich country, the existence of many plant species is currently under threat as evident by continuous degradation of natural forest in Bangladesh. There is an increasing pressure on the biodiversity of this country to meet the needs of the increasing population of Bangladesh. As a result, many plant species are gradually declining and are facing extinction. Over exploitation of natural ecosystems, land use changes, permanent infrastructures in natural ecosystems, illegal logging, natural disasters, climate change effects and limited forest protected areas (FPAs) are key threats to plant diversity. Government has made some initiative to conserve the remaining plant diversity including declaration of FPAs, national conservation strategies and establishment of environment related acts. At present 47 FPAs are established as in-situ and ex-situ conservation approaches to preserve plant diversity. Several preservation plots, clone banks and arboreta are also functioning as conservation approaches. The country has several laws that address forest and biodiversity conservation, several of which has been amended in last decade. Recently the country has taken some policies and projects in small scale to ensure effective conservation of plant diversity through sustainable management practices. Although co-management by FPAs authority and local participant has some advantageous effects, the existing conservation practices are still poor to effective conservation of flora diversity.
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