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This study evaluated the relationship between selected physicochemical properties and microbial populations of the soil of Bagale Forest Reserve, Girei Local Government Area of Adamawa State, Nigeria. Five plots of 20 x 20 m were laid. Soil samples were collected from five different positions at two soil depths of 0-15 cm and 15-30 cm. The soil samples were isolated in the laboratory for microbial populations and determination of physical and chemical properties. The results obtained revealed that fungal population (7.65 x 105 cfu/ml) was the highest at the soil depth of 0-15 cm, representing 39% of the total microbial populations in the sampled soil of the study area. The results further revealed that the population (6.84 x 105 cfu/ml) of the bacteria had a positive effect on soils of the study area in terms of nitrogen fixation by Rhizobacterial spp. Chemical properties of the soil samples revealed that the available phosphorus exhibited the highest percentage (61.7%) at 0-15 cm soil depth. Analyses of soil physical properties recorded the highest percentage (49.0%) of sand at 0-15 cm soil depth. A similar percentage (50.0%) of sand was exhibited at the depth of 15-30 cm. These percentages accounted for the high porosity (29.0%) of the soil observed at the two soil levels in the study area and could be improved through the application of lime fertilizers. Application of appropriate fertilizers like NPK to improve the soil condition of the study area is highly recommended.
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